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Cartagena Agreement

Despite this announcement, Venezuela had not yet formally completed all the necessary withdrawal procedures. According to Venezuelan Trade Minister María Cristina Iglesias, the whole process is expected to take five years. Until then, Venezuela and its partners would remain bound by the effects of existing EU trade agreements. [13] The Andean Community and Mercosur are the two main trading blocs in South America. In 1999, these organizations began negotiating a merger for the creation of a “South American Free Trade Area” (SAFTA). On 8 December 2004, the Andean Community (CAN) signed a cooperation agreement with Mercosur and issued a Memorandum of Understanding for future negotiations for the integration of the whole of South America into a South American Union (USAN) on the model of the European Union. However, some analysts have interpreted that Venezuela could leave the CAN at some point. [10] When Colombia and Peru signed free trade agreements with the United States, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez effectively announced, in protest in April 2006, his country`s withdrawal from the CAN and declared that the Community was “dead”. [11] Colombian and Peruvian officials have expressed their opposition to this view, as well as representatives of the Venezuelan industrial sector (Conindustria). [12] The Andean Community shall endeavour to include in the agreements a democratic clause which it signs with third parties in accordance with the criteria laid down in this Protocol.

International investment agreements (IIAs) are divided into two types: (1) bilateral investment agreements and (2) investment agreements. A bilateral investment agreement (BIT) is an agreement between two countries on the promotion and protection of investments made by investors of the countries concerned in the territory of the other country. The vast majority of AIIs are BITs. The category of contracts with investment rules (TIPs) includes different types of investment agreements that are not NTBs. Three main types of PNT can be distinguished: 1. global economic contracts, which contain obligations usually found in THE ILO (e.g. B a free trade agreement with an investment chapter); (2) contracts with limited investment provisions (e.g. B only those relating to the creation of investments or the free transfer of investment funds); and (3) contracts that contain only “framework clauses”, such as. B those relating to cooperation in the field of investment and/or a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues. In addition to AIIs, there is also an open category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It includes several binding and non-binding instruments, such as model agreements and drafts, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organizations and others.

IIA Mapping Project The IIA Mapping Project is a cooperative initiative between UNCTAD and universities around the world to represent the content of IIAs. The resulting database serves as a tool to understand trends in the development of the IIA, assess the prevalence of different policy approaches and identify examples of contracts. The “Mapping of IIA Content” allows you to browse the results of previous projects (the page will be updated regularly when the new results are updated). Please cite as: UNCTAD, Mapping of IIA Content, available under investmentpolicy.unctad.org/international-investment-agreements/iia-mapping For more information: Mapping Project Page Project Description & Methodology Document The IIA Navigator is constantly adapted following verifications and comments from UN Member States. It is mainly based on information provided by governments on a voluntary basis. A contract is included in a country`s IIA census as soon as it is formally concluded; Contracts whose negotiations have been concluded but not signed are not counted. .