They are easier to negotiate than multilateral trade agreements because they affect only two countries. This means they can take effect faster and gain business benefits faster. If negotiations on a multilateral trade agreement fail, many countries will instead negotiate a series of bilateral agreements. 9. Krugman PR. The step towards free trade areas. In: Proceedings – Symposium on Economic Policy. Jackson Hole (1991). pp.7–58.
Available online at: ideas.repec.org/a/fip/fedkpr/y1991p7-58.html The agreement reflects the United States` negligible risk rating for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) from the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). A very practical advantage of bilateral agreements is that they are faster and easier to negotiate than multilateral agreements, as only two parties are involved in bilateral negotiations. In addition, bilateral free trade agreements are a key driver of trade liberalization, although multilateral agreements are more extensive. As the example given, Australia and New Zealand were allowed to become a single economy with respect to the substance; the Australian Agreement on Closer Economic Relations between New Zealand (ANZCERTA). This had a major impact on New Zealand`s export volumes to Australia, from 14% in 1983 to 20.5% in 2004. Trade between the two countries has grown by an average of 9-10% per year since 1990. Therefore, both countries have really benefited from this free trade agreement. Bilateral trade liberalization affects the movement of more expensive goods and services, as well as the disadvantages of diverting goods and services from countries that appear to be more advantageous than multilateral trade liberalization. As the real problem in the WTO negotiations in the context of multilateral agreements shows, many developing countries are discriminated against and protective tariffs are absolutely necessary for their economic success. But liberalization is expected to reduce tariffs in the near future.
After the April 2006 negotiations, the German government and the European Committee presented a controversial proposal that developing countries should reduce their tariffs more than advanced countries, which would put them at a disadvantage. These countries need tariffs because they are an effective tool to promote industrial development (Frankfurter Rundschau, 2006) Multilateral negotiations are the most effective way to liberalize trade in an interdependent global economy, as concessions in a bilateral or regional agreement can undermine concessions to another trading partner in an earlier agreement. It is also important to mention that regional trade agreements take place within the framework of multilateral trade agreements, and this is the case, for example, with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the European Union (EU). .